The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal intercourse determination


Women that are pregnant have already been interested in the intercourse of the unborn youngster. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medication, while the revolutionary alterations in its quality and function has resulted in the capacity to designate a intercourse to those unborn young ones, therefore allaying the anxiety of those females but with consequent emergent ethical, ethical, psycho-social, and issues that are medico-legal. The goals had been to look for the precision of sonographic prenatal sex determination, perform binary classification test, plus the effect it’s, including mis-diagnosis.

Materials and practices:

A prospective prenatal sonographic intercourse determination research on 205 consecutive consenting pregnant women aged 20-40 years in an exclusive medical center in Benin between August 2010 and October 2011. Questionnaires had been administered to these women prior to and after the scan in addition to females had been told the intercourse of this fetuses and their emotions regarding the determined intercourse recorded. The sex at delivery had been verified and set alongside the scan determined gender by their instance note and telephone. Appropriate conversations through the scan and down the road had been recorded in the questionnaires. The analytical package utilized was SPSS variation 17 and binary category tests had been done.

The sensitiveness (98.2%) and classification that is binary values of prenatal intercourse determination had been high utilizing the sensitiveness of detecting a female more than compared to men. Two men were misdiagnosed as females. A lot of the females had been pleased even though the sex differed from that which they desired.


Prenatal sonographic intercourse determination features a sensitivity index that is high. Consequently we advocate its usage just before more invasive intercourse tests.


Ultrasound can be used generally in most parts of the world for prenatal intercourse dedication. Indication for prenatal intercourse determination could be nonmedical or medical. The indication that is medical its usage use in families prone to x-linked problems, testicular feminization syndrome, pseudo-hermaphroditism, vaginal anomalies, ambiguous genitalia, and dedication of zygosity in numerous maternity. 1 – 5 In families predisposed to x-linked problems it contributes to the lowering of invasive procedures as sonographic prenatal determined females will never require further invasive screening that is genetic. The reasons that are nonmedical by females for sonographic sex determination consist of preparturition shopping, interest, husband/relatives’ demand, also to verify suspicion. 4

First trimester sonographic prenatal sex determination can be carried out from 11 days gestation with the way of this genital tubercle as well as the “sagittal indication.” The downward way associated with tubercle is regarded as a lady even though the direction that is upward male. 1 ,2 In sagittal indication, study of the vaginal area within the midline sagittal air air plane shows a caudal notch in females and a cranial notch in men. 6 ,7 Ultrasound scan done in the next and trimester that is third focus on visualization associated with anatomy associated with genitals or pelvic framework in determining the fetal intercourse. During the early magazines on sonographic gender that is prenatal male sex ended up being identified by the existence associated with the penis and scrotum while females had been by the lack of both scrotum and penis. 8 But with improved modern ultrasound quality technology visualization associated with the vulva, clitoris, and labia is considered a lady fetus whereas demonstration for the scrotum, penis, descended testicles, and penile midline raphe is assigned to men. Visualization regarding the internal pelvic structures of this fetus including the womb and ovaries also assists in assigning appropriate intercourse to the fetus.

Unfortuitously trimester that is first intercourse determination has significant false negative price. 2 ,9 tests done within the 2nd trimester have actually better sensitiveness values. 9 The sensitivity of sonographic determined intercourse is based on the operator, device, and habitus. Enhancement into the sensitiveness value increases with a high proficiency and experience along with top-notch device. Improperly determined sex might have some effects that are psychological the household. 2 thus an effort must certanly be designed to put a sex that is accurate in the fetus. Therefore we undertook this research to look for the prenatal accuracy that is sonographic sensitiveness pattern within our environment.


It is a study that is prospective at a personal medical center in Benin from August 2010 to Oct 2011. Approval when it comes to research had been tried and awarded through the radiology division plus the administration (which will act as the board that is ethical associated with personal organization where in fact the research had been conducted. Within the research 205 consecutive consenting women that are pregnant with pregnancies within the 2nd or 3rd trimester that have been referred for obstetric ultrasound had the task explained for them and questionnaires administered after signing the consent section that is informed. Sonographic prenatal sex determination had been carried out within these consenting ladies while the determined intercourse communicated in their mind. They certainly were then expected the way they felt about the determined sex and their feelings recorded. Information such as phone figures, gestational age at scan time, projected date of distribution, situation note number, as well as other appropriate information had been entered to the questionnaires. Their instance records had been retrieved about 3 months following the date that is expected of in addition to sex associated with the infant at delivery joined within their questionnaires. The clients were additionally contacted by phone in addition to intercourse at delivery verified with relevant responses joined to the questionnaires. The intercourse at delivery ended up being then weighed against the prenatal sonographic determined intercourse.

The machine that is ultrasound ended up being Fukuda Denshi FF Sonic, UF-4100, Tokyo, 2007. The scan had been done by one of many scientists. Recognition associated with the vulva, clitoris, and labia had been utilized to designate sex that is female the fetus Figure 1 . For male fetuses visualization associated with the scrotum, testicles, and penile shaft had been used Figure 2 . The women were asked how they felt after knowing the fetal sex after the scan. Their reactions had been then entered to the questionnaires. Appropriate dental communications had been additionally recorded within the questionnaires as other findings.

Female genitalia, encircled

Male fetal genitalia that are externalcircled)

The info had been analyzed SPSS that is using version. Descriptive analysis had been done in the patients’ biodata and gestation associated with pregnancies. Binary category test such as for example sensitiveness, specificity, good predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy had been performed for either fetal intercourse and the outcomes tabulated. a test that is chi-square additionally completed with significant value set at 0.05.

2 hundred and five expecting mothers participated in this study with all the youngest aged twenty years even though the earliest 40 years. The age that is average of participants ended up being 29.5 years; median 29 years; and mode 28 years. The mean time at that the scans had been carried out is at 29.2 months gestation; median, 30 days gestation; mode, 35 months gestation. The earliest scan is at 17 months of gestation even though the latest is at 40 months using the range spanning 23 months Figure 3 .

Histogram showing the frequencies and ages that are gestational which obstetric scans had been done

All of the females had been accurately detected sonographically as females, but 2 men had been mistakenly reported as females dining Table 1 . Those two men had been scanned at 33 and 36 days of gestation. The positive predictive value for ultrasound male intercourse detection is 100% Table 2 . It hence implies that if on ultrasound a male intercourse is detected, then a possibility of being male is 100%. Having said that if sonographically a female intercourse is detected, then a likelihood is 97.9% so it risk turning off to be a lady at delivery. Also, the sensitivity, specificity, and precision for either intercourse are high Table 2 russian mail order wives .

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *